Different Kinds of Fire Sprinkler Systems and Their Uses

Types of Fire Sprinkler Systems

Fire sprinkler systems are classified into four types: wet pipe, dry pipe, pre-action, and deluge. Each of these strategies helps to inhibit flame propagation and reduce fire damage. The way these fire sprinkler systems are activated and what they’re employed for are the main differences.

Fire Sprinkler System with Wet Pipes

Water is contained in the pipes of wet pipe fire sprinklers, which are the most popular form of fire sprinkler system. Facilities must maintain a temperature of at least 40 degrees due to the presence of water in the system. The water in the pipes will not freeze as a result of this. The procedure for turning on a wet pipe fire sprinkler is straightforward. When the temperature of a fire sprinkler element reaches a certain level, it breaks and discharges the water. Office buildings, schools, and high-rise structures with common threats all use wet pipe fire sprinkler systems.

Fire Sprinkler System with Dry Pipes

Dry pipe fire sprinklers, unlike wet pipe systems, are filled with nitrogen or pressured air. A dry pipe valve is kept closed by air pressure, preventing water from entering the system. When a fire sprinkler senses a quick rise in temperature, it activates, causing the air pressure in the system to decrease. This opens the dry pipe valve, flooding the dry pipe fire sprinkler system with water. The water is then discharged by the triggered fire sprinkler. Because dry pipe fire sprinklers do not contain water, they are excellent for use in places when temperatures are below freezing. This sort of fire prevention system is commonly found in unheated warehouses, parking garages, and attic areas.

Fire Sprinkler System with Pre-Action

Instead of water, pre-action fire sprinkler systems use pressured air or nitrogen. It takes two steps to activate pre-action mechanisms. A fire must first be detected by a heat or smoke detector, which then sends a signal to open the pre-action valve. This adds water to the system. To detect a fire, a fire sprinkler head must first detect an increase in temperature. When the fire sprinkler is activated, water is immediately sprayed onto the flames. The two-step activation mechanism of pre-action fire sprinklers helps avoid inadvertent system activation. As a result, these fire sprinkler systems are perfect for use in museums, server rooms, libraries, and data farms.

Fire Sprinkler System Deluge

Because the open design sprinkler heads may discharge water fast, deluge fire sprinkler systems are used in high-hazard sites. These sprinkler heads, unlike other types of fire sprinkler systems, are constantly open and activated all at once. There is no water or compressed air in these systems. The deluge valve activates when a heat or smoke detector senses smoke or heat, and water is sent to all of the fire sprinklers. Water may now be discharged from each sprinkler head. When a highly flammable substance catches fire, the flames can quickly expand and spread. A fast-acting deluge fire sprinkler system is required in buildings such as airplane hangars, industrial plants, and manufacturing enterprises.


Fire sprinkler systems are divided into four categories. Which sort of fire sprinkler will provide the best protection depends on the type of institution and the threats present. Regardless of how these systems work or whether their pipes contain water, pressured air, or neither, they all work to keep fires from spreading. Check out the differences between standard response, quick response, and open fire sprinklers for more information on fire sprinklers and their reaction times go to Zedex Fire Services.

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